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Anterior and Vertical Translations of the Cervical Spine Increase Stresses up to 4.25 Times; Likely Accelerating the Development of Spinal Arthritis and Disc Disease

Anterior and Vertical Translations of the Cervical Spine Increase Stresses up to 4.25 Times; Likely Accelerating the Development of Spinal Arthritis and Disc Disease

The presence and extent of spinal arthritis and degenerative disc disease (SADD) is a common occurrence in adult populations and the rates increase as we age.

However, SADD is not an inevitable consequence of just getting older as the general rule of thumb is that the better you take care of your body, the longer it will last and take care of you. In the scientific literature there is not a clear linear cause and effect correlation between the amount of SADD and the amount of patient dysfunction or health disorders. However, in general, there is mild to moderate correlation between the extent and levels of SADD and different human health and disease conditions such as neck pain, stiffness, diability, etc.1-7 Perhaps more importantly, the extent of SADD may signify a serious breakdown of your body.

Cervical Spine SADD Correlates to Systemic Health and Heart Disease

One investigation identified a correlation between abnormal/altered auditory evoked brainstem nerve potentials and the presence of cervical spine SADD; indicating that nerve conduction velocity and amplitude was altered in the presence of SADD.7 Likewise, several studies have shown a correlation with cervical spine arthritis and disc disease (SADD) and myelopathy and heart disease and related disorders.8-11 For example, in a recent surgical intervention study for patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy (spinal cord impingement due to SADD), decompression surgery was found to improve patient hypertension. These findings indicate that SADD in the cervical region can alter the sympathetic nervous systems ability to maintain blood pressure at normal levels and that hypertension can be due to SADD.8

These important studies demonstrate that degeneration of the cervical spine is associated with ‘nerve interference’ and potentially serious cardiac and vascular health disorders.7-11

Causes of Cervical Spine SADD

It is noted that moderate-severe radiographic determined spinal SADD causing cervical spondylotic myelopathy can be a serious health disorder associated with a myriad of clinical conditions as reported in the cardiac studies above. However, common sense dictates that moderate to severe SADD causing myelopathy always begins as more mild form of SADD. It is suggested that the prudent clinician should do their best to control for specific risk factors linked to the development and progression of spinal arthritis and disc disease (SADD). Patient relevant risk factors for the development and progression of SADD include at minimum the following: diet, smoking, body mass (obesity), physical activities, and abnormal spinal and postural alignment.8-13

One of the best solutions to control for the progressive development of Spinal Arthritis and Disc Disease (SADD), is to insure that you have a proper cervical spine posture and a proper cervical lordotic curvature. Figure 1 demonstrates the normal versus abnormal posture alignment and deterioration as we age.

Spine Modeling Study By CBP Researchers Predicts SADD will Develop Due to Head Translation Postures

In a 2002 spine modeling investigation, Harrison and colleagues13 digitized measurements from lateral cervical radiographs of three different patients with different posture alignments of their cervical spine: 1) a normal health cervical curve and posture alignment, 2) a subject with a straightened or vertical translation of their cervical curve, and 3) a subject with large abnormal anterior head translation posture were used. An engineering model using ‘short-compression-block equations’ was developed in order to calculate axial loads and bending moments on the vertebral bodies of cervical segments C2-T1. Figure 2 below depicts the normal cervical curvature with no head translation and normal healthy discs and a case with vertical translation (straight neck) and anterior translation. Note the extensive spine arthritis and disc disease in this case.

Since spinal arthritis and disc disease (SADD) is commonly found at areas of altered stress (force per unit area) and strain (deformation), an engineering analysis is necessary to determine the exacting loads acting on the cervical spine vertebra in different spine configurations. The model developed looked at the loads on the cortical (outside covering of the vertebra) and the medullary (spongy vertebra core) bone of the cervical vertebra C2-T1.

The model developed by Harrison and colleagues identified that the stresses (forces per unit area) acting on the cervical vertebra and discs in translation postures are very large in the lower spine segments (C2-T1) and opposite in direction compared to a normal lordosis. It was found that the anterior or forward head translation posture was associated with the largest combined stresses; their model predicted that the stresses were up to 4.25 times greater compared to the normal, healthy lordosis of the cervical spine.

This analysis provides the basis for the development or progression of spinal arthritis and disc disease in the lower cervical segments when abnormal translations of the cervical curve are found in patients. “Our model predicted results indicates that translations of the cervical spine posture is an unhealthy position in as much as it will accelerate the development or progression of spinal arthritis and disc disease (SADD) due to altered and increased spinal loads experienced by the spine tissues.” said Doctor Deed Harrison, an author of the study.

How Can You Get Help for Your Altered Posture and Spinal Arthritis and Disc Disease and Health Disorders?

Chiropractic BioPhysics® corrective care trained Chiropractors are located throughout the United States and in several international locations. CBP providers have helped thousands of people throughout the world realign their cervical spines back to health, and eliminate a potential source of progressive SADD, chronic neck pain, chronic headaches and migraines, fibromyalgia, and a wide range of other health conditions. If you are serious about your health and the health of your loved ones, contact a CBP trained provider today to see if you qualify for care. The exam and consultation are often FREE. See www.CBPpatient.com for providers in your area.

References

    1. Hart J. Structural problems of the spine do not necessarily require intervention. J Canadian Chiropr Assoc 2007; 51(1).
    2. Gore DR. Roentgenographic findings in the cervical spine in asymptomatic persons. A ten-year follow-up. Spine 2001;26:2463-2466.
    3. Peterson C, Bolton J, Wood AR., & Humphreys BK. A cross-sectional study correlating degeneration of the cervical spine with disability and pain in United Kingdom patients. Spine 2003; 28(2):129–133.
    4. van der Donk J, Schouten JS, Passchier J, van Romunde LK, Valkenburg HA. The associations of neck pain with radiological abnormalities of the cervical spine and personality traits in a general population. J Rheumatol 1991;18(12):1884-1889.
    5. Norris SH, Watt I. The prognosis of neck injuries resulting from rear-end vehicle collisions. J Bone and Joint Surgery 1983;65-B:608-611.
    6. Marchiori DM, Henderson CNR. A cross-section study correlating cervical radiographic degenerative findings to pain and disability. Spine 1996;21:2747-2752.
    7. Olszewski J, Kochanowski J, Zalewski P, Chmielewski H. The effect of neck rotation on auditory evoked brainstem potentials in patients with degenerative cervical spine changes. Neurol Neurochir Pol 1993;27:23-29.
    8. Li, ZQ, Zhao YP, et al. Surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy associated hypertension. A retrospective study of 309 patients. Plos One 2015; 10(7):
    9. Zhang H, Guo M, Lu X. PUlse changes in patients with cervical spondylosis before and after acupuncture treatment. J Traditional Chinese Med 2016; 36(1): 63-70.
    10. Yoshida G, Kanemura T, Ishikawa Y, Sakai Y, et al. Cardiopulmonary function in elderly patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Orthop Sci 2012; 17(1): 3-8.
    11. Shindo K, Tsunoda S, Shiozawa A. Decreased sympathetic outflow to muscles in patients with cervical spondylosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1997; 96(4):241-246.
    12. Kauppila LI, McAlindon T, Evans S, Wilson PW, Kiel D, Felson DT. Disc degeneration/back pain and calcification of the abdominal aorta. A 25-year follow-up study in Framingham. Spine 1997;15(22):1642-1647.
    13. Harrison DD, Jones WE, Janik TJ, Harrison DE. Evaluation of Flexural Stresses in the Vertebral body Cortex and Trabecular Bone in Three Cervical Configurations with an Elliptical Shell Model. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002; 25(6): 391-401.

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Chiropractic Biophysics Non-profit, Inc. is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation dedicated to the advancement of chiropractic principles through scientific research. Dr. Don Harrison (deceased) and his second wife Dr. Deanne LJ Harrison (deceased) founded CBP research foundation in 1982; it was registered as CBP Non-Profit, Inc. in 1989 by Dr. Sang Harrison (Don’s 3rd and final life’s love). Through this organization Dr. Don and colleagues have published 140 peer-reviewed spine and Chiropractic research publications. Further, CBP Non-Profit, Inc. has funded many scholarships as well as donated chiropractic equipment to many chiropractic colleges; always trying to support chiropractic advancement and education. Dr. Don Harrison was the acting president of CBP Non-Profit, Inc. since 1982. Currently, Dr. Deed Harrison (Don’s son) is the President of CBP Non-Profit, Inc.
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